Eva van Reijmersdal, Sophie Boerman and their co-authors received the award for ‘Best Article Published in Journal of Advertising in 2020’ (runner up) for their article: Eisend, Martin, Eva A. van Reijmersdal, Sophie C. Boerman, and Farid Tarrahi (2020), “A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Disclosing Sponsored Content,” Journal of Advertising, 49(3), 344-366). Journal of Advertising (ISI ranking 6.30) is the currently the number one journal in the category Communication.
This study applies social contract theory to examine whether perceptions of a social contract explains adaptive behavior to safeguard online privacy. We (1) identify and (2) estimate the prevalence of subgroups that differ in their perceived “social contract” (based on privacy concerns, trust, and risk), and (3) measure how this perceived social contract affects adaptive online behavior. Using a representative two-wave panel survey (N = 1,222), we distinguished five subgroups of internet users; the highly-concerned, wary, ambivalent, neutral (the largest group), and carefree users. The former three were more likely to adapt their behavior than the latter two subgroups. We argue that the implied social contract represents an important construct that helps to identify whether individuals engage in privacy protection behavior.
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Social media influencers – such as the ‘Instafamous’ – are required to disclose any commercial relationship. To achieve transparency, Instagram has introduced a standardized disclosure (‘Paid partnership with [brand]’). This study examined whether this disclosure effectively raises ad recognition, and how this consequently affects consumers’ responses to the message, influencer, and brand. Additionally, the effects of the disclosure were compared between micro- (<10,000 followers) and meso- (10,000–1 million followers) influencers. Results of an online experiment (N = 192) with a 2 (no disclosure vs. standardized disclosure) x 2 (micro-vs. meso-influencer) between subjects design showed that the disclosure did achieve its goal of increasing ad recognition. Furthermore, the disclosure positively affected brand recall and intentions to engage with the post, via ad recognition. The parasocial interaction with the influencer was not affected. Moreover, influencer type did not moderate the effect of the disclosure and did not affect people’s responses to the message, influencer, or brand.
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Watching online videos is becoming an important part of children’s media diets. Children particularly like content that is specifically created for YouTube by YouTube personalities. Because these personalities have a large reach and are considered likeable and credible, they have become social media influencers. For advertisers, these influencers are an interesting channel to reach youth. Therefore, influencers often embed persuasive sponsored messages in their videos to earn money. However, there are concerns about this practice because it is not always clear when a video includes advertising. Therefore, in several countries, guidelines have been developed that state that sponsoring in influencer videos should be disclosed as such. Until now, little is known about the effects of disclosures for influencer videos on children and the boundary conditions for such effects. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a disclosure of sponsored influencer videos on children’s advertising literacy. Additionally, we examined the consequences of the disclosure for children’s responses to the brand, advertised product, and video. We also included the para-social relationship (PSR) that children experience with an influencer as a possible boundary condition for disclosure effects on persuasion. Our experiment amongst children between 8 and 12 years old showed that, when children correctly recalled the disclosure, the disclosure increased their recognition of advertising, and understanding of selling and persuasive intent. Moreover, advertising literacy evoked by the disclosure affected persuasion: The disclosure enhanced brand memory through ad recognition, but also decreased advertised product desire through understanding the selling intent of the video. Furthermore, the PSR of children with the influencer proved to be a boundary condition for disclosure effects on brand attitudes. Only for those children who experienced moderate to low PSRs with the influencer, the disclosure resulted in less positive brand attitudes through understanding selling intent. For children who experienced a strong PSR with the influencer, the understanding that the content had a selling intent did not affect their brand attitudes. These findings show that a disclosure (if noticed and remembered) can be an effective tool to achieve transparency, but also influences the persuasive outcomes of influencer marketing in online videos.
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ASCoR researchers awarded on June 21th, 2018 Continue reading
On April 24th, Sophie Boerman succesfully defended her dissertation entitled “This program contains product placement” Effects of sponsorship disclosure on television viewers’ responses. Her research received attention in several newspapers and websites Continue reading