Moorman, M., Willemsen, L.M., Neijens, P.C., & E.G. Smit (2012). Program involvement effects on the processing of embedded and successive advertising. Journal of Advertising, 41(2), 25-38. doi:10.2753/joa0091-3367410202

Abstract: Although program involvement is often found to be an important determinant of commercial recall, studies have produced mixed results. The authors contend that inconsistent findings are, in large part, a result of the degree to which respondents are free to determine their exposure to commercials. It is hypothesized that in studies where exposure is not forced, program involvement has a positive effect on commercial recall. This proposition was examined during the broadcast of four matches of the 2000¬†European Soccer Championship (N= 344). Results show that viewers who saw a highly involving match recalled commercials significantly better than those who saw matches that scored lower on program involvement.¬† This effect was, in large part,¬†mediated by respondents’ exposure to the commercials.