Abstract: The Internet does not only provide a multitude of information by journalistic sources or public institutions but also user-generated content, which has been published by laypersons. Especially with regard to science-related information, Internet users may be overwhelmed by the huge amount of content and may have difficulties in evaluating information quality and in finding relevant and appropriate documents. Primarily based on own studies, we present a theoretical model on information processing of science-related content on the Internet. The model deals with information selection as well as with attitude formation in relation to factors such as source, message complexity, and reader characteristics. On this basis, we will discuss how media competence can be strengthened in instructional settings.