Background: In the past decades many psychosocial interventions for elderly people with dementia have been developed and implemented. Relatively little research has been done on the extent to which these interventions were implemented in the daily care. The aim of this study was to obtain insight into strategies for successful implementation of psychosocial interventions in the daily residential dementia care. Using a modified RE-AIM framework, the indicators that are considered important for effective and sustainable implementation were defined.
Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cinahl, followed by a hand search for key papers. The included publications were mapped based on the dimensions of the RE-AIM framework: Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance.
Results: Fifty-four papers met the inclusion criteria and described various psychosocial interventions. A distinction was made between studies that used one and studies that used multiple implementation strategies. This review shows that to improve their knowledge, caregivers needed at least multiple implementation strategies, only education is not enough. For increasing a more person-centered attitude, different types of knowledge transfer can be effective. Little consideration is given to the adoption of the method by caregivers and to the long-term sustainability (maintenance).
Conclusions: This review shows that in order to successfully implement a psychosocial method the use of multiple implementation strategies is recommended. To ensure sustainability of a psychosocial care method in daily nursing home care, innovators as well as researchers should specifically pay attention to the dimensions Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance of the RE-AIM implementation framework.
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